Today im gonna share about mosquito-borne infectious disease (MALARIA). It is caused by parasites of the species plasmodium. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of North & South America, Asia, n Africa. This disease transmitted by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito (the disease's vector).
The life cycle of Malaria
1)Infected mosquito bites human
2)Parasite rapidly goes to the liver within 30 minutes.
3)The parasite starts reproducing rapidly in the liver, some parasites (from the ovale and vivax species of malaria) lie dormant in the liver, to reactivate and cause diseases often long after the initial infection
4)This gets into the blood stream, attaches and enters red blood cells. Further reproduction occurs
5)Infected red blood cells burst, infecting other blood cells
6)This repetitive cycle causes fever and depletes the body of oxygen-carrying red blood cells. Additionally, infected red blood cells clog up the circulation in vital organs such as the brain and kidney.
7)As infection progresses, sexual forms of the parasite (gametocycles) are released into the blood stream. When a mosquito bites, it takes up these gametocycles and the cycle of infection is perpetuated placing others at risk.
The disease is caused by four species of protozoa
a. Plasmodium falciparum (malignant tertian)
· This is considered as the most serious malarial infection because of the development of high parasitic densities in blood (RBC) with tendency to agglutinate and form into microemboli
· This is most common in the Philippines
b. Plasmodium vivax (Benign tertian)
· This is nonlife threatening except for the very young and the old
· It is manifested by chills every 48 hours on the 3rd day onward especially if untreated
c. Plasmodium malariae (Quartan)
· It is less frequently seen
· This specie is nonlife threatening
· Fever and chills usually occur every 72 hours usually on the 4th day after onset
d. Plasmodium ovale
. is the rare type of protozoan species
· This is rarely seen in the Philippines
•Muscle and joint pain
PREVENTION & CONTROL
•Malaria cases should be reported
•A screening of all infected persons from mosquitoes is important
•Mosquito breeding places must be destroyed
•Homes should be sprayed with effective insecticides which have residual actions on the walls
•Mosquito nets should be used especially when in infected areas
•Insect repellents must be applied to the exposed portion of the body
•People living in malaria-infected areas should not donate blood for at least three years
•Blood donors should be properly screened.